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CARGOES                                   Iig

commenced should be rejected in the interest of other cargo
loaded in the same space under deck. This applies especially
to packages containing liquid cargoes.

The ship receives cargo, and receipts or bills of lading are
signed for goods in "apparent good order and condition,"
if a bill of lading is so issued and the master accepts any
package which does not correspond with this description
he lays himself open to possible cargo claims which are
not the fault of the ship but for which he must bear
responsibility. The tally should therefore be claused hi
order that the condition of the goods may be inserted on
the bill of lading.

Coal and grain cargoes are liable to spontaneous com-
bustion as also is copra, and precautions must be taken to
ensure the safe ventilation throughout the period of the

Grain, in addition to its natural tendency to become
heated, is very liable to shift, and in charter-parties where
full cargoes of grain are carried the provision of shifting
boards is included in the contract. Shifting boards are
inserted in the holds dividing the space into several smaller
compartments as an assistance to the stability of the ship
if cargo should shift. Shifting boards are now compulsory
for most bulk grain cargoes.

A simple illustration of the ship if cargo should shift is
shown hereunder—

A—Hold  of a  ship     B—vessel  listing,     C—vessel  listing,
showing level of          showing  cargo          and new level of

grain cargo,                  shifted, and new          cargo   with   the

level formed.                addition of shift-

ing boards.

From the second sketch {B} it will be seen that once a
vessel has listed causing the cargo to find a new level it is a

9—{B.3I23)     24 pp*